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Ultrasonic Testing (UT)

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Ultrasonic Testing (UT)is a group ofnondestructive examination(NDE) techniques that use short, high-frequency ultrasonic waves to identify flaws in a material. They generally work by emitting waves into a material. By measuring these waves, the properties of the material and internal flaws can be identified. Most UT devices consist of many separate units. These can include pulsers and receivers, transducers, and display monitors. The components included depend on the type of UT that the inspector is performing.

Types of Ultrasonic Testing

There are several different types of ultrasonic testing, including:

Automated Ultrasonic Backscatter Technique

Advanced Ultrasonic Backscatter Technique (AUBT)is a UT technique developed for detecting damage from High-Temperature Hydrogen Attack (HTHA). The technique is for use in pressure vessels and piping. The technique makes use of high frequency, broadband UT probes and a digital oscilloscope. These allow it to provide both an A-Scan display and frequency analysis.

Phased Array Ultrasonic Testing

Phased Array Ultrasonic Testing (PAUT)is a UT technique that utilizes a set of UT probes made up of numerous (anywhere from 16 to over 250) small elements. Each of the elements in a PAUT system is able to pulse individually. This is done with computer calculated timing, through a process known as phasing. This allows the system to steer focused beam through various angles and focal distances.

Long Range Ultrasonic Testing

远程超声波检测(LRUT)is a UT method developed to allow for testing large volumes of material from a single test point. This method works by fixing transducer rings uniformly around a pipe. These rings then generate a series of low frequency guided waves. The waves can then propagate symmetrically along the pipe axis. This provides complete coverage of the pipe wall.

Internal Rotating Inspection Systems

An内部旋转检测系统(IRIS)is an ultrasonic technique used to detect corrosion in piping and tubing. using an internally inserted probe that generates sound waves. The system works by inserting a probe into a flooded pipe. The probe them move through the pipe, scanning as it goes.

飞行时间衍射

飞行时间衍射(TOFD)is a method used to look for flaws in welds. It uses the time of flight of an ultrasonic pulse to find the location of a reflector. To find the TOF, the method uses a pair of ultrasonic transducers. The transmitter emits low frequency waves that propagate at an angle. They only diffract back to the receiver if they hit a defect.

Dry-Coupled Ultrasonic Testing

Dry-Coupled Ultrasonic Testing (DCUT)是一种替代,低成本的方法,不需要液体耦合剂来检查金属和非金属材料。另外,DCUT换能器能够承受高电压。Dcut是一种多功能方法,可以使用柔性,触点,轮子或远程传感器进行。

  • 柔性换能器可以施加在组件的外部或内表面上以检测缺陷。
  • Contact transducers are also used to detect flaws as well as thickness measurements.
  • Wheel transducers allow inspectors to inspect long piping systems in a short amount of time.
  • 远程换能器是有利的,因为它们可以以非传统角度(即,在表面不是90°的角度)以非传统角度进行厚度测量。这消除了构建支持或删除组件的需要以进行检查。

Rapid Ultrasonic Gridding (RUG)

Rapid Ultrasonic Gridding (RUG)is an NDE method of performing ultrasonic thickness in which multiple ultrasonic thickness probes are utilized, simultaneously, to rapidly gather thickness measurements in a predefined or ad hoc space. Like other UT methods, RUG captures raw A-Scan data, which can be presented in B-Scan or C-Scan modes — or used to create visual representation as 3-D models. However, RUG is capable of capturing multiple A-Scan data points at a much faster rate than traditional thickness measuring techniques.

Advantages and Disadvantages

In general, UT has several advantages and disadvantages. It’s useful because it can scan for flaws both on and underneath the surface. It is also useful for it's incredible accuracy. On the other hand, not all materials are receptive to ultrasonic testing. It also has the disadvantage that it requires a good deal of skill and training to perform.

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